Ways to enhance metacognition through the factors of learning processes, achievement goals and self-efficacy

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2 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigates the factors which influence university students' preferences in their learning processes, the orientations of their achievement goals, and the enhancement of their self-efficacy in learning. The examination of factors influencing these variables helps in devising measures to enhance students' metacognitive development. Fifty-four students participated in a questionnaire survey measuring their metacognitive level, and an interview inquiring into the reasons for their tendencies to use surface or deep processing, the motives for their types of achievement goals, and ways to enhance their self-efficacy in learning. The results showed the main factors that influence students' preference for deep or surface processing for learning, such as the amount of time, the nature of the course, their familiarity with the subject and their understanding of the learning materials. Ways that could enhance students' self-efficacy are also identified, such as receiving positive feedback from others and setting proper goals. However, no clear connection was found between students' achievement goals and their metacognitive level. Based on the findings, potential ways to develop students' metacognition are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)435-448
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Innovation and Learning
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Achievement goals
  • Approach goals
  • Avoidance goals
  • Deep processing
  • Learning processes
  • Metacognition
  • Metacognitive development
  • Self-efficacy
  • Surface processing


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