Management of anticoagulation in patients with infective endocarditis

Xiaogang Zhu, Zhenhua Wang, Markus W. Ferrari, Katharina Ferrari-Kuehne, David H. Hsi, Gary Tse, Quanzhong Zhou, Haifeng Liang, Yuhui Zhang, Jian Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Infective endocarditis (IE) carries a high risk of vascular complications (e.g., cerebral embolism, intracerebral hemorrhage, and renal infarction), which are correlated with increased early and late mortality. Although anticoagulation is the cornerstone for management of thromboembolic complications, it remains controversial and challenging in patients with IE. An appropriate anticoagulation strategy is crucial to improving outcomes and requires a good understanding of the indication, timing, and regimen of anticoagulation in the setting of IE. Observational studies have shown that anticoagulant treatment failed to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke in patents with IE, supporting that IE alone is not an indication for anticoagulation. In the absence of randomized controlled trials and high-quality meta-analyses, however, current guidelines on IE were based largely on observational data and expert opinion, providing few specific recommendations on anticoagulation. A multidisciplinary approach and patient engagement are required to determine the timing and regimen of anticoagulation in patients with IE, especially in specific situations (e.g., receiving warfarin anticoagulation at the time of IE diagnosis, cerebral embolism or ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, or urgent surgery). Collectively, individualized strategies on anticoagulation management of IE should be based on clinical evaluation, available evidence, and patient engagement, and ultimately be developed by the multidisciplinary team.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15-25
Number of pages11
JournalThrombosis Research
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Infective endocarditis
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage
  • Oral anticoagulants
  • Stroke
  • Thromboembolism
  • Vitamin K antagonist


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