Lower risk of gout in sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors versus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors in type-2 diabetes

Jiandong Zhou, Xuejin Liu, Oscar Hou In Chou, Lifang Li, Sharen Lee, Wing Tak Wong, Qingpeng Zhang, Carlin Chang, Tong Liu, Gary Tse, Fengshi Jing, Bernard Man Yung Cheung

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14 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: The effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2I) vs dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4I) on the risk of new-onset gout remains unknown. This study aims to compare the effects of SGLT2I against DPP4I on gout risks. Methods: This was a retrospective population-based cohort study of patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus treated with SGLT2I or DPP4I between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2020 in Hong Kong. The study outcomes are new-onset gout and all-cause mortality. Propensity score matching (1:1 ratio) between SGLT2I and DPP4I was performed. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models were conducted. Competing risks models and multiple approaches based on the propensity score were applied. Results: This study included 43 201 patients [median age: 63.23 years old (Interquartile range, IQR): 55.21–71.95, 53.74% males; SGLT2I group: n ¼ 16 144; DPP4I group: n ¼ 27 057] with a median follow-up of 5.59 years (IQR: 5.27–5.81 years) since initial drug exposure. The incidence rate of developing gout [Incidence rate (IR): 2.5; 95% CI: 2.2, 2.9] among SGLT2I users was significantly lower than DPP4I users (IR: 5.2; 95% CI: 4.8, 5.8). SGLT2I was associated with 51% lower risks of gout (HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.58; P-value < 0.0001) and 51% lower risks of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.58; P-value < 0.0001) after adjusting for significant demographics, past comorbidities, medications and laboratory results. The results remained consistent on competing risk and other propensity score approaches. Conclusions: SGLT2I use was associated with lower risks of new gout diagnosis compared with DPP4I use.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1501-1510
Number of pages10
JournalRheumatology (United Kingdom)
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • DPP4
  • SGLT2
  • anti-diabetic drugs
  • cohort study
  • crystalline arthropathy
  • diabetes mellitus
  • gout
  • metabolic syndrome
  • mortality
  • retrospective study


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