CF-YOLO: Cross Fusion YOLO for Object Detection in Adverse Weather with a High-Quality Real Snow Dataset

Qiqi Ding, Peng Li, Xuefeng Yan, Ding Shi, Luming Liang, Weiming Wang, Haoran Xie, Jonathan Li, Mingqiang Wei

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Snow is one of the toughest adverse weather conditions for object detection (OD). Currently, not only there is a lack of snowy OD datasets to train cutting-edge detectors, but also these detectors have difficulties of learning latent information beneficial for detection in snow. To alleviate the two above problems, we first establish a real-world snowy OD dataset, named RSOD. Besides, we develop an unsupervised training strategy with a distinctive activation function, called Peak Act, to quantitatively evaluate the effect of snow on each object. Peak Act helps grade the images in RSOD into four-difficulty levels. To our knowledge, RSOD is the first quantitatively evaluated and graded real-world snowy OD dataset. Then, we propose a novel Cross Fusion (CF) block to construct a lightweight OD network based on YOLOv5s (called CF-YOLO). CF is a plug-and-play feature aggregation module, which integrates the advantages of Feature Pyramid Network and Path Aggregation Network in a simpler yet more flexible form. Both RSOD and CF lead our CF-YOLO to possess an optimization ability for OD in real-world snow. That is, CF-YOLO can handle unfavorable detection problems of vagueness, distortion and covering of snow. Experiments show that our CF-YOLO achieves better detection results on RSOD, compared to SOTAs. The code and dataset are available at

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)10749-10759
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2023


  • RSOD dataset
  • cross fusion
  • peak act
  • snowy object detection


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