Are hotel managers taught to be aggressive in intelligence gathering?

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The study examines the ontological similarity between the concept of competitor orientation and questionable intelligence-gathering efforts. Respondents from the hotel industry were surveyed with self-administered questionnaires. Exploratory factor analysis was carried out to identify the structure underlying variables of market orientation and ethical judgment on questionable intelligence-gathering efforts. The results suggest that the surveyed hotel managers are unable to distinguish the legitimate tactics of competitor orientation from the questionable practice of industrial espionage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)417-424
Number of pages8
JournalAsian Journal of Business Ethics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • Aggressive competitors
  • Intelligence gathering
  • Market orientation


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