A Systematic Review of the Design of Serious Games for Innovative Learning: Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality, or Mixed Reality?

Lap Kei Lee, Xiaodong Wei, Kwok Tai Chui, Simon K.S. Cheung, Fu Lee Wang, Yin Chun Fung, Angel Lu, Yan Keung Hui, Tianyong Hao, Leong Hou U, Nga In Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The recent integration of educational technologies and emerging learning approaches into education systems has been driven largely by the pandemic. This paper conducts a systematic review and delves into the new wave of research on serious games designed for innovative learning using augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), and mixed reality (MR). The review was referenced to the review protocol, PRISMA 2020. Using the Scopus Database with a time filter from 2007 to 2023 (27 July), we searched 329 articles and shortlisted 273 relevant studies. Notably, European countries contributed the most (62.9%) to this research area. Among the most frequent keywords, VR (90.9%) was commonly used in AR/VR/MR, while e-learning (95.3%) was among the popular innovative learning approaches. Further research studies are needed to employ AR and MR technologies, as well as other innovative learning approaches, to enable performance evaluation and comparison of various educational technologies and learning approaches. We conducted an in-depth analysis of the relevant studies and their basic characteristics. Additionally, we introduced 15 essential and recently published AR/VR/MR standards to ensure better reliability, quality, and safety of architectures, systems, products, services, and processes. To facilitate performance evaluation and analysis, we surveyed 15 recently published benchmark education datasets. This review suggested four future research directions, including multisensory experiences, generative artificial intelligence, personalization and customization, and real-time interaction.

Original languageEnglish
Article number890
JournalElectronics (Switzerland)
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • augmented reality
  • blended learning
  • e-learning
  • hybrid learning
  • immersive learning
  • innovative learning
  • mixed reality
  • serious games
  • smart education
  • virtual reality


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