A real-time collision avoidance framework of MASS based on b-spline and optimal decoupling control

Xinyu Zhang, Chengbo Wang, Kwok Tai Chui, Wen Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Real-time collision-avoidance navigation of autonomous ships is required by many application scenarios, such as carriage of goods by sea, search, and rescue. The collision avoidance algorithm is the core of autonomous navigation for Maritime autonomous surface ships (MASS). In or-der to realize real-time and free-collision under the condition of multi-ship encounter in an uncertain environment, a real-time collision avoidance framework is proposed using B-spline and optimal decoupling control. This framework takes advantage to handle the uncertain environment with limited sensing MASS which plans dynamically feasible, highly reliable, and safe feasible collision avoidance. First, owing to the collision risk assessment, a B-spline-based collision avoidance trajectory search (BCATS) algorithm is proposed to generate free-collision trajectories effectively. Second, a waypoint-based collision avoidance trajectory optimization is proposed with the path-speed de-coupling control. Two benefits, a reduction of control cost and an improvement in the smoothness of the collision avoidance trajectory, are delivered. Finally, we conducted an experiment using the Electronic Chart System (ECS). The results reveal the robustness and real-time collision avoidance trajectory planned by the proposed collision avoidance system.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4911
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jul 2021


  • B-spline
  • Collision avoidance
  • Maritime autonomous surface ships
  • Optimal decoupling control
  • Real-time


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