A Dye-Assisted Paper-Based Assay to Rapidly Differentiate the Stress of Chlorophenols and Heavy Metals on Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli

Wanqing Dai, Bibi Inumbra, Po Yu Wong, Alma Sarmiento, Ying Yau, Jie Han, Guozhu Mao, Yung Kang Peng, Jian Lin Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Biological toxicity testing plays an essential role in identifying the possible negative effects induced by substances such as organic pollutants or heavy metals. As an alternative to conventional methods of toxicity detection, paper-based analytical device (PAD) offers advantages in terms of convenience, quick results, environmental friendliness, and cost-effectiveness. However, detecting the toxicity of both organic pollutants and heavy metals is challenging for a PAD. Here, we show the evaluation of biotoxicity testing for chlorophenols (pentachlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 4-chlorophenol) and heavy metals (Cu2+, Zn2+, and Pb2+) by a resazurin-integrated PAD. The results were achieved by observing the colourimetric response of bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli) to resazurin reduction on the PAD. The toxicity responses of E. faecalis-PAD and E. coli-PAD to chlorophenols and heavy metals can be read within 10 min and 40 min, respectively. Compared to the traditional growth inhibition experiments for toxicity measuring which takes at least 3 h, the resazurin-integrated PAD can recognize toxicity differences between studied chlorophenols and between studied heavy metals within 40 min.

Original languageEnglish
Article number523
JournalBiosensors
Volume13
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2023

Keywords

  • chlorophenol
  • heavy metal
  • paper-based PAD
  • toxicity

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